Today, since past posts regarding disk management software have mostly been limited to Veritas Volume Manager, I thought we'd look at LVM on Linux (In a future post, we'll check out the differences between LVM 1 and 2, but for now I figured we could keep it simple and broad).
If you use any of the "major player" Linux flavours out there, you've probably noticed (over the last year or so) that standard installs show all your disks listed out in df, like:
/dev/mapper/vg01-lvol01 246M 75.2M 158M 32% /dir
rather than the old-style:
/dev/hdd1 246M 75.2M 158M 32% /dir
that you've (if you're anything like me and only have two hard drives on the home PC you're running Linux on ;) grown to love.
And, while I think it's fantastic that Linux has grown into a mostly-user-friendly operating system with GUI's to make all of the extended partitioning and volume management more accessible, I also think there's something to be said for knowing how to be able to set all that stuff up on your own. You never know when your main display (or X-windows session) will die on you and, at some point, you may end up having to do some disk repair on the lonely old command line.
With that in mind, we'll step through the most basic LVM setup: Getting from /dev/hdd to /dev/mapper/vg01-lvol01 from the command prompt.
Our basic (and huge assumption) here is that we've got a primary drive to work from (although we could do this just as easily from a rescue, or live, CD-ROM if we needed to perform this work on our primary disk during the Linux installation process or a freakish-nightmare of a fix)
First, we'll want to use fdisk to create a "new" "primary" partition that consists of the entire disk (512Mb in size). Barring a primer on fdisk, we'll want to set up our disk to have one primary partition that consists of all cylinders (first and last should be the default start and end values) and is set to the "Linux LVM" partition type.
Once we're done with the stuff we'd "normally" do (for the most part) to set up any other type of partition table on our /dev/hdd disk, we can begin to play around with the LVM commands. Note that if you chose any partition type other than LVM when setting up your partition, using the following commands will, at best, result in error messages and accomplish nothing :)
If you've ever used HP-UX before, a lot of these commands will seem familiar. There's a reason, but the legalities of discussing it (and possibly getting bits of it wrong) fall outside the scope of my pocketbook ;)
The first thing we'll do is create a "physical volume," like so:
host # pvcreate /dev/hdd1
Yes, it was a physical volume already. The logical-physical relationship sometimes doesn't hold up to scrutiny outside of the "rules" ;)
Next, well create a "volume group." This is necessary, because "logical volumes" run in packs... pardon my lack of propriety ;) We could use the "-s" option here to define the "physical extent" size, but we'll leave that alone. To say the least, specifying this requires some research and planning. If you get that number wrong, things can go South later, and you'll have to do some ugly backtracking. We just want to define a "volume group" so we have something to work with. We'll call it vg01, for lack of a more original name.
host # vgcreate vg01 /dev/hdd1
Next, we'll create a "logical volume" (we'll name this one "lvol01" to keep things consistent) of 246 Megabytes size. That should fit nicely inside vg01 (which we're basically using to represent the entire partition /dev/hdd1). We could make our "logical volume" as large as the entire partition and/or "volume group", but that would defeat the purpose of this whole exercise. The aim, of course, is to end up with flexible volumes so we can resize them later if we need to.
host # lvcreate -L 246M -n lvol01 vg01
This is where the /dev/mapper stuff comes into play (it never made sense to me the first time I saw it... really. It's because of my past experience with HP-UX ;) The "lvcreate" command creates a symlink between /dev/vg01/lvol01 and the character device /dev/mapper/vg01-lvol01.
And, next, all we have to do is format that bad boy:
host # mkfs -t ext3 /dev/vg01/lvol01
Note that, above, you can set a reserved block count (based on percentage) using the -m flag. I would usually set this to "-m 5" so that 5% of the allocated space would be reserved for root (although you can set it as low as 1). This way, if someone jams your filesystem up to 100% and no one can get any work done, you can still log in as root and fix the issue. -v is another useful flag if you want to see verbose output. You can insert these two flags anywhere in the above command line except at the very end (after the logical device name) or in between the -t flag and its argument. Common sense, I know, but I feel compelled to over-explain ;)
Now, we'll make a mount point, or, really, just make a new directory off of the root filesystem (although you can do overlays if you wanna get creative ;)
host # mkdir /dir
and then we'll mount our logical volume up and check it out with df:
host # mount -t ext3 /dev/vg01/lvol01 /dir
host # df -h /dir
/dev/mapper/vg0-lvol0 246M 75.2M 158M 32% /dir
Tomorrow, or maybe the day after that, we'll take a look at some more ways to manipulate your existing volumes, add more volumes, do mirroring and lots of other fun stuff that LVM allows you to do.
For now, we'll just thank our deity-of-choice that this all worked out ;)
Tuesday, June 10, 2008