Today we're back at the concept-well, and starting out a five part post on setting up a Unix or Linux system securely. This should be an interesting series of posts since I (like most folks, probably) haven't worked with every flavour of Linux or Unix out there, so this set of guidelines is more of a "rough draft" based on experience with Solaris and RedHat servers than an attempt to encompass all areas of system installation, setup and security on every possible OS. Doing so would either be incredibly vague or unbelievably presumptuous. Probably, both ;)
With that in mind, we'll get going with part 1a. Setting up the basic system and keeping it clean from the start. If you're a big fan of numbered lists, you're gonna love this post ;) Hopefully, this post (and the following to come) will generate feedback from users of other systems - or these same systems running different versions - and become a nice broad-but-useful guide to system setup and security!
OS Installation Guidelines, Part 1a: Basic Setup and System Security Steps (1 of 2... as in too many to fit on one reasonably sized page ;)
1. Create a list of functions the machine will be expected to perform and the services required to fulfill those needs. Also create a map of partitions you expect to use on the disks you have available.
2. Install the basic Operating System. NOTE: If you will be using disk management software (e.g. Solstice Disk Suite, Volume Manger, LVM, Veritas Volume Manager, etc), be sure to read the documentation for these packages before doing your OS install. Most of these types of packages require free partitions to store their disk management data.
3. Download the latest Recommended Patch bundle from sunsolve.sun.com for Solaris machines. Also download the Security Patch bundle if this exists separately. Install both and reboot the machine. For Redhat, do a complete up2date run-and-reboot cycle as many times as necessary.
4. Comment out the following files in /etc/init.d (Some filenames may vary or not exist, depending on what OS you're installing. For an easy way to comment out base init.d files, assuming they're linked to run level directories, check out our old post on editing startup scripts with the vi editor. Don't let the Solaris brand name in the post put you off. It works for any OS on which you can run vi) - Note, also, that this list is pulled from a Solaris box and your security standards may require removing even more. As a general rule, if you don't need it, disable it! RedHat users can do this with chkconfig or ntsysv more easily. Solaris 10 user can make use of the svcs and svcadm commands):
a. acct ( since we prefer to control the process accounting ourselves).
b. asppp ( if we won’t be hooking up a modem to do ppp dialups to the machine).
c. autofs (if automounting not necessary)
d. autoinstall (if machine is not a bootp client)
e. cachefs.daemon (if you will not be using nfs’s cachefs subsystem)
f. cachefs.root (if you will not be using nfs’s cachefs subsystem)
g. cacheos (if you will not be using nfs’s cachefs subsystem)
h. cacheos.finish (if you will not be using nfs’s cachefs subsystem)
i. dhcp (if machine is not a dhcp server or client)
j. dtlogin (if software in use does not require X-windows default login - Removing this will not remove X-windows functionality)
k. init.dmi (if machine will not be availing itself of snmp management)
l. init.snmpdx (if machine will not be availing itself of snmp management)
m. initpcmcia ( if the machine has no pcmcia devices).
n. lp (if print services are not required)
o. mkdtab ( this script runs after installation and is never used again).
p. nfs.client (if the nfs client subsystem will not be required)
q. nfs.server (if the nfs server subsystem will not be required)
r. pcmcia (if machine has no pcmcia devices)
s. power (if machine doesn’t use individual ups power management)
t. rpc (if machine will not be using rpc services) (If the machine will be using rpc services, comment out all of the start section of the script, except for the rpcbind initialization. All other parts of this section initiate nis services, which aren't necessary if you don't use nis :)
u. sendmail (if machine will not need to be a mail receiving agent.)
v. sshd (if you'll be installing you own ssh to maintain flexibility to be more up to date with any security releases).
w. spc ( if print services are not required).
x. uucp ( if you won’t be making use of the uucp subsystem).
y. xntpd (if machine will not serve as a time server or be doing persistent ntp scanning)
z. PRESERVE (this invokes /usr/lib/expreserve, which has a known buffer-overflow bug).
aa. README (read it first, if you like).
5. rm /etc/init.d/*.old
6. Check in /etc/rc0.d, /etc/rc1.d, /etc/rc2.d and /etc/rc3.d (or your system specific run level directories) for any old links to nonexistent files. Delete these.
7. Check in the rc directories, also, for files beginning with X or lowercase s or k. Delete these files as well.
8. If sshd is running, stop it. If you don't plan on using Sun's or RedHat's packaged ssh, we'll be replacing this later. You can leave it if you like.
9. Run /etc/init.d/openssh (or /etc/init.d/sshd) start to start OpenSSH.
10. Connect to the machine via ssh to continue executing the steps in this document. This way you won’t have to worry about poor console terminal emulation creating any accidental errors in the files you will be editing.
11. After installation, ensure that all unnecessary processes have been disabled, using a simple scan of ps output, and disable any that are running and not necessary (sendmail, for instance, is a program that is notorious, on Solaris, for being reactivated as a mail sending agent after patching and/or updating!)
12. Next, be sure to check the network interface. Many of the Sun machines come with all the network ndd settings enabled, which can cause problems with some routers, which are pinned to certain speeds and don’t auto-negotiate. RedHat user's should have been asked about what network settings they wanted to enforce during installation. If not, ethtool can be used to force the required speed/duplex setting Do the following to test:
i. ftp, or scp a file from somewhere, or to somewhere over the network
ii. Run netstat –ian and check the Collisions column. This should still be at 0 for the network interface. If it isn’t, you’ll need to augment the /etc/init.d/nddconfig script, use nddconfig or (for RedHat) use ethtool (and double check the /etc/sysconfig/network and /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-NICNAME files) to suit the machine and/or environment.
iii. Should you need to fix the interface, so that you get zero collisions (which collisions should, theoretically be impossible on a packet-switched network) and ensure maximum speed without any dropped packets, refer to your system's, or department's documentation. There are really no generalities that can be put to paper here. In my experience, Solaris Gig NIC's usually require auto-negotiation at the switch (for Cisco's) and adv_autoneg_cap set to 1, with all other configurable parameters set to 0, in order for them to work, while old hme interfaces require that the switch be pinned to 100mb and only the adv_100fdx_cap be set to 1 in order for them to function properly. Cut and paste the contents into /etc/init.d/nddconfig after the case/esac clause and before the exit command to ensure the configuration happens at boot time. For RedHat, update the /etc/sysconfig/network and /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-NICNAME files if necessary). If hme0 gives you a really big headache on Solaris, check our older post on disabling network devices at the PROM level.
13. Comment out every unnecessary line in /etc/inetd.conf (or delete or set to "off" all unnecessary files in /etc/xinetd.d), particularly the unnecessary r-services, and ensure that all services, where applicable, are managed through tcpd – ensure that telnetd is enabled as a backup during install (but, only if you plan on using a custom SSH later, and then just in case)
Ex: ftp with: /usr/local/encap/tcp-wrappers/bin/tcpd and /usr/sbin/in.ftpd –d as the file and args.
14. Add loghost to /etc/syslog.conf: (NOTE: It is imperative that a tab, and not a space, separate the list of facilities-severities and the hostname of the remote logging host or target file!) Also Note that, at this point, if you do NOT have a syslogging server dedicated and set up, you do NOT have to complete this step (not at all, if you don't plan on using one):
Also be sure to change any references to /var/console to /var/adm/console on Solaris or /dev/console on RedHat.
15. Configure sendmail to use its relay properly, if you are going to use it to send mail out. If the machine is an email server; that’s another story. NOTE: If running sendmail v8.8.8 or earlier, be sure to reverse the ruleset for S94 to ensure proper masquerading of envelope addresses from the host, if you have that feature enabled!
16. Set up networking and name services minimally:
a. Create /etc/hosts with loopback, host, logging host , default router, nameserver, and mail host information if applicable. (Note: When entering host information, ensure that the first entry in the host field is the fully qualified domain name. This is a pet peeve of mine. You can do the simple hostname first and then the FQDN. Preferably, list them both for each IP.)
b. Create and populate /etc/defaultrouter or set the DEFAULT_GATEWAY value in either of the /etc/sysconfig/network and /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-NICNAME files on RedHat.
c. Edit /etc/nsswitch.conf to use "dns [ NOTFOUND="continue"]" for hosts. If you don't set NOTFOUND, the default value is "return" and this can cause issues with telnet and ftp hostname lookups, etc.
d. Create and populate /etc/resolv.conf.
17. If host is multi-homed, disable IP-forwarding by creating /etc/notrouter on Solaris. Do "echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward" on RedHat to disable packet routing/forwarding.
18. If possible, trim /etc/mail/aliases to include at least (and, maybe, at most) the following (be sure to execute newaliases if any changes are made):
19. Create /etc/shells with these contents (remove any shells you don't want to be run on your system and add any, that I forgot to include, that you do!):
/usr/local/bin/keysh (Only include if using keysh on system)
To be continued...
Thursday, June 19, 2008